Lapidary projects for bead shops, wholesale jewelry designers, body jewelry artists and dealers in rough stones- importers and exporters of Chinese turquoise, ammolite and ammonite fossils from Canada, sodalite, rhodonite, mariposite, tungsten ore, purple stone and jade beads and rough

This section deals with rocks, gems and minerals for lapidary projects and wholesale jewelry trades. Our special section on Canadian jade, Chinese turquoise and Canadian ammolite and ammonite fossils which we provide as rough, as finished beads, pendants and as body jewelry are from years of cutting in China, India and Bali.

  • We have shipped 30 tons of Canadian jade, sodalite, rhodonite, mariposite, purple stone and tungsten ore to Shanghai and Southern China to process. These stones will be cut in beads, pendants, cabochons and body jewelry. We plan on providing full access to our facilities there on full length video and complete photo gallery to learn the process of cutting and polishing these stones and minerals. From the time the stones are brought in to the factory to the final polish you will be able to staudy the art of lapidary.
  • We will offer the same services in Bali where the carvers know how to work with horn, bone, coral, silver and gold but have not had the opportunity to yet learn the cutting of the stones as well as the Chinese have.
  • New from Canada is our line of ammolite beads, pendants and body jewelry. Each different color found in Ammolite has positive effects on the body and spirit. Feng Shui articles relating to Ammonites and Ammolite in 2008. Ammonites were hard shelled squid-like marine animals that existed from the Palaeozoic to the end of the Cretaceous era when they suddenly became extinct. They were abundant in all of the oceans.
  • The name "ammonite" is derived from the ancient Egyptian god Ammon who considered them to be devine and is represented by the head of a ram with twisted spiral horns that are reminiscent of ammonites twisted shells. The Roman historian Pliny the Elder regarded ammonite as the holiest stone because it was said to evoke prophetic dreams.
  • NEW FOR 2008- GEMSTONES AND THEIR SPECIFIC GRAVITY, HARDNESS AND OTHER INFORMATION
  • This is a fairly comprehensive listing of gemstones with their specific gravity, Mohs hardness, index of refraction and gemstone family classification in alphabetical order.
  • Specific Gravity:
  • Specific gravity is the number of times heavier a gemstone of any volume is than an equal volume of water; in other words, it is the ratio of the density of the gemstone to the density of water. For all gemstones listed in this table there is a scientifically determined specific gravity. You can use the specific gravity and a couple simple measurements to estimate the carat weight of a stone. We have created a calculator that makes a gemstone carat weight estimation using this principle.
  • Mohs Hardness:
  • Hardness can be tested through scratching. A mineral can only be scratched by a harder substance. Therefore, a relative scale can be established to account for the differences in hardness simply by seeing which mineral scratches another. That is exactly what French mineralogist Friedrich Mohs proposed almost one hundred and seventy years ago. The Mohs Hardness Scale starting with talc at 1 being the softest and ending with diamond at 10 hardest, is universally used around the world as a way of distinguishing minerals. Simply put - the higher the number, the harder the mineral.
  • Index of Refraction:
  • All materials refract light, ie alter its angle. The amount by which light is refracted is an important feature of every gemstone. The measure of a material's refractivity is known as its index of refracton (R.I.). Without going too deeply into physics, light travels at different speeds through different media. When light passes from one medium to another, its path is altered (bent) and it is said to be diffracted.
  • Gemstone Family Classification: The gemstones listed here show every color in the rainbow. Even with such variety of colors, patterns and shapes - they can be broken down into 16 different families based on their chemical composition.
  • Gemstone Name Specific Gravity Mohs Hardness Index of Refraction Gemstone Family
  • Achorite 3.03 - 3.25 7.0 - 7.5 Mohs 1.610-1.661 Tourmaline
  • Agate 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.530 - 1.550 Quartz Alexandrite 3.68 - 3.78 8.5 Mohs 1.746 - 1.755 Chrysoberyl Almandine 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.750 - 1.830 Garnet Almandine Spinel 3.58 - 4.06 8.0 Mohs 1.708 - 1.735 Spinel Almandine-Spessartine 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.750 - 1.830 Garnet Amazonite 2.55 - 2.76 6.0 - 6.5 Mohs 1.518 - 1.526 Feldspar Amethyst 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.532 - 1.554 Quartz Andradite 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.880 - 1.940 Garnet Aquamarine 2.63 - 2.91 7.5 - 8.0 Mohs 1.567-1.590 Beryl Balas Ruby 3.58 - 4.06 8.0 Mohs 1.708 - 1.735 Spinel Black Opal 1.98 - 2.25 5.5 - 6.5 Mohs 1.440 - 1.460 Opal Bloodstone 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.535 - 1.539 Quartz Brazilian Emerald 3.03 - 3.25 7.0 - 7.5 Mohs 1.610 - 1.640 Tourmaline Cairngorm 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.540 - 1.550 Quartz Carnelian 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.530 - 1.550 Quartz Cat's Eye 3.68 - 3.78 8.5 Mohs 1.746 - 1.755 Chrysoberyl Chalcedony 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.544 - 1.553 Quartz Chlorspinel 3.58 - 4.06 8.0 Mohs 1.712 - 1.717 Spinel Chrome Pyrope 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.730 - 1.760 Garnet Chrysoberyl 3.68 - 3.78 8.5 Mohs 1.746 - 1.755 Chrysoberyl Chrysoprase 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.530 - 1.550 Quartz Citrine 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.532 - 1.554 Quartz Color-Change Garnet 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.730 - 1.760 Garnet Demantoid 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.880 - 1.900 Garnet Diamond 3.51 10 Mohs 2.417 Diamond Dravite 3.03 - 3.25 7.0 - 7.5 Mohs 1.610-1.661 Tourmaline Emerald 2.63 - 2.91 7.5 - 8.0 Mohs 1.560 - 1.605 Beryl Feldspar 2.55 - 2.76 6.0 - 6.5 Mohs 1.518 - 1.572 Feldspar Fire Opal 1.98 - 2.25 5.5 - 6.5 Mohs 1.430 - 1.460 Opal Garnet 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.730 - 1.760 Garnet Ghanospinel 3.58 - 4.06 8.0 Mohs 1.712 - 1.747 Spinel Goshenite 2.63 - 2.91 7.5 - 8.0 Mohs 1.570 - 1.600 Beryl Green Quartz 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.540-1.550 Quartz Grossular 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.880 - 1.940 Garnet Heliodore 2.63 - 2.91 7.5 - 8.0 Mohs 1.570 - 1.600 Beryl Heliotrope 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.535 - 1.539 Quartz Hessonite 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.730 - 1.760 Garnet Hyacinth 4.60 - 4.70 7.5 Mohs 1.777 - 1.987 Zircon Indicolite 3.03 - 3.25 7.0 - 7.5 Mohs 1.610 - 1.640 Tourmaline Jade 2.90 - 3.10 6.0 Mohs 1.640 - 1.667 Jade Jadeite 2.90 - 3.10 6.0 Mohs 1.640 - 1.667 Jade Jargon 4.60 - 4.70 7.5 Mohs 1.777 - 1.987 Zircon Jasper 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.540 - 1.550 Quartz Labradorite 2.55 - 2.76 6.0 - 6.5 Mohs 1.560 - 1.572 Feldspar Lapis Lazuli 2.70 - 2.90 5.0 - 5.5 Mohs 1.500 - 1.550 Lapis Lazuli Malaia 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.880 - 1.940 Garnet Matura Diamond 4.60 - 4.70 7.5 Mohs 1.777 - 1.987 Zircon Moonstone 2.55 - 2.76 6.0 - 6.5 Mohs 1.518 - 1.526 Feldspar Morganite 2.63 - 2.91 7.5 - 8.0 Mohs 1.585 - 1.594 Beryl Morion 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.540 - 1.550 Quartz Nephrite 2.90 - 3.10 6.0 Mohs 1.600 - 1.641 Jade Onyx 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.531 - 1.539 Quartz Opal 1.98 - 2.25 5.5 - 6.5 Mohs 1.440 - 1.460 Opal Orthoclase 2.55 - 2.76 6.0 - 6.5 Mohs 1.518 - 1.526 Feldspar Peridot 3.22 - 3.45 7.0 Mohs 1.635 - 1.690 Peridot Peristerite 2.55 - 2.76 6.0 - 6.5 Mohs 1.560 - 1.572 Feldspar Praziolite 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.540 - 1.550 Quartz Pyrope 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.730 - 1.760 Garnet Pyrope-Almandine 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.730 - 1.760 Garnet Pyrope-Spessartine 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.730 - 1.760 Garnet Quartz 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.544 - 1.553 Quartz Red Beryl 2.63 - 2.91 7.5 - 8.0 Mohs 1.570 - 1.598 Beryl Rhodolite 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.740 - 1.770 Garnet Rock Crystal 2.65 7.0 Mohs 2.000 Quartz Rose Quartz 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.540 - 1.550 Quartz Rubellite 3.03 - 3.25 7.0 - 7.5 Mohs 1.610 - 1.640 Tourmaline Rubicelle 3.58 - 4.06 8.0 Mohs 1.712 - 1.717 Spinel Ruby 3.96 - 4.05 9.0 Mohs 1.757 - 1.779 Corundum Sapphire 3.96 - 4.05 9.0 Mohs 1.757 - 1.779 Corundum Sapphire Spinel 3.58 - 4.06 8.0 Mohs 1.712 - 1.747 Spinel Siberite 3.03 - 3.25 7.0 - 7.5 Mohs 1.625-1.675 Tourmaline Smoky Quartz 2.65 7.0 Mohs 1.540 - 1.550 Quartz Spessartine 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.790 - 1.810 Garnet Spinel 3.58 - 4.06 8.0 Mohs 1.712 - 1.717 Spinel Sunstone 2.55 - 2.76 6.0 - 6.5 Mohs 1.560 - 1.572 Feldspar Topaz 3.50 - 3.60 8.0 Mohs 1.607 - 1.627 Topaz Topazolite 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.880 - 1.940 Garnet Tourmaline 3.03 - 3.25 7.0 - 7.5 Mohs 1.603 - 1.655 Tourmaline Tsavorite 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.739 - 1.744 Garnet Turquoise 2.60 - 2.80 5.0 - 6.0 Mohs 1.610 - 1.650 Turquoise Uvarovite 3.50 - 4.30 6.5 - 7.5 Mohs 1.740 - 1.870 Garnet Verdilite 3.03 - 3.25 7.0 - 7.5 Mohs 1.612-1.638 Tourmaline Water Opal 1.98 - 2.25 5.5 - 6.5 Mohs 1.440 - 1.460 Opal White Opal 1.98 - 2.25 5.5 - 6.5 Mohs 1.440 - 1.460 Opal Zircon 4.60 - 4.70 7.5 Mohs 1.777 - 1.987 Zircon
  • About Gemstones Classification of Gemstones Weight Estimation in Jewellery Settings Units for Weighting Gemstones Gem Enhancements Synthetic Gemstones Gemstones Care & Precautions Moh's Scale of hardness Zodiac Gemstones Birthstone Colors of Gemstones Natural Occurrence of Gems Gemstone Cutting & Lapidary Ayurvedic Properties Cleaning Gemstone Gemstone Cutting & Lapidary Techniques Shapes in Gemstones Gem Identification Grading of Gemstones Why to buy a colored gemstone Tips of buying Gemstone Why Collect Gemstones ?
  • Gem Enhancement
  • The appearance of gemstones can be enhanced by treatment to improve color, clarity, durability etc. This may be done to produce new colors, to improve the original color and shine of a gemstone, to improve clarity of gemstones, to reduce porosity in gemstones and even to stabilize color or to enhance durability. Usually each stone requires different treatment to be done. The difference could be in the type of treatment applied or the intensity of the treatment. Such alteration could be easy as well as impossible to detect. In global business, it is never advisable to sell any artificially enhanced gems without full disclosure of information about the treatment. Unfortunately, full disclosure is an exception rather than the rule in the marketplace.
  • Let us have a quick view of the frequently used methods and treatments for gem enhancements.
  • Heat Treatment
  • Heat Treatment of a Gem means heating a gem under controlled conditions. Routine heating under controlled conditions of gems like aquamarine, Sapphire, Ruby, Tourmaline often improves the gem in its color. However gems like sapphire, amethyst, citrine, topaz and zircon are heated to alter their color. In the mean time, in gems like Sapphire and Ruby, heat treatment could be effective in improving clarity. Since lot many gems under go natural heating (e.g., in volcanic areas, or in hot steam areas), sometimes the artificial effects become indistinguishable from natural effects. In majority of the cases, the results of heat treatment are permanent.
  • Irradiation
  • Irradiation of a Gem means exposing a gemstone under controlled conditions to radiations. Irradiation is capable of producing a wide variety of colors of yellowish diamonds. Some color stones, for example topaz is irradiated in large quantities and then heat treated to produce various shades of blue. Even Tourmaline can be irradiated to enhance or produce new colors. However in many cases, the effects of irradiation are somewhat unstable and can be reversed by heating.
  • Chemical Treatment and Impregnation
  • Treating Gemstones chemically can produce superb results in in enhancing colors or even in producing new colors. To stabilize porous Turquoise and improve its color, Turquoise and improve resin. Diamonds with a yellow tint are coated on girdle or pavilion with thin bluish film to produce brilliant colors. Chemical bleach and impregnation improve Jadeite's color. For stones like "Black Onyx", impregnation and carbonization by acid is usually practiced. Dull corundum can be enhanced by heating it in chemicals to get a thin layer of color deposited on stone's surface. Chemical treatment results in impressive colors but colors may not last when stones are recut.
  • Assembled Stones
  • Roughly assembled stones means using a combination of gemstones to increase improve their looks. For example the play of colors in gemstones can be enhanced by use of dark backing such as in quarts. Quarts top imparts more durability and stability. Thin seams of opal stones are assembled with opal or black onyx backing producing a doublet, a clear Quartz top added to it produces a triplet. However, opal doublets and triplets must be taken care of against heat and liquids. Although gemstone cutting is the most basic enhancement method necessary to fully display the beauty of a gemstone, there are many fascinating methods by which humans have demonstrated theirability to draw maximum color, luster, clarity and brilliance from nature's earthbound treasures. A basic understanding of these enhancement techniques will add to your appreciation of the beauty, durability and value of the gemstone jewelry you already own, or purchase now and in the future.
  • Below are some gem enhancement techniques used for some of the gemstones.
  • Emerald :
  • Emerald, to many symbolizes rebirth and life abundant. The rich green hues bring to mind regeneration of life in spring, and hope of new possibility. Perfection in Emerald, as in all things, is among the most rare of nature's treasures. When they are mined from the earth, almost all emeralds have unique birthmarks that distinguish them as truly natural gemstones. Early gem merchant in India sought to purify the color of their emeralds by immersing them in clear oils or paraffin. They found that clear oils and waxes rendered surface fissures nearly invisible to the naked eye. Today, we have many sophisticated technologies with which to clarity enhance emeralds. In addition to the oils and waxes of ancient method, we now use clear resins to penetrate the open fissures surfacing in the stones. "Hardeners" are often added to solidify these liquids. This step prevents the resin from evaporating from the stones, thus making the clarity enhancement more permanent then oiling or waxing the gem. Ask your jeweler for information regarding your Emerald selection and care. To understand the journey, your emerald has traveled from the earth to you is to gain special insight into its magic.
  • Ruby:
  • Passion, excitement, luxurious opulence.... these are just a few words that describe our fascination with this most precious of gems. For thousands of years, men have sought to own precious Rubies as symbols of devotion and objects of desire. Imperfections and impurities may be removed by controlled heating of the gemstones. Some Rubies have fissures on surface breaks that are filled with a glass-like byproduct of the heating process. Care should be observed when wearing fissure-filled rubies. This enhancement technique may wear over time if treated harshly or exposed to strong solvents or abrasives. Your jeweler will inform you of the best method to care for your natural gemstone treasures.
  • Sapphire:
  • Soothing, sensuous blue; liquid blue; evening sky blue; cornflower blue... these are among the many shades of this lovely gemstone. And yet there are many colors and hues of Sapphire from which to choose; the not and soft pinks; the oranges, greens purples, gold yellows and whites... all for your pleasure. Since ancient times, man has treasured Sapphire. Some thought the heavens crystallized to form a huge Sapphire upon which the earth rested. All sought the pure colors of this gem variety as an expression of beauty and wealth. Yet the prefect Sapphire is as rare as the finest work of art. And thus, we have evolved methods over the centuries to enhance the purest hues of Sapphire. This is often achieved by controlled heating of the gemstones to improve their clarity and color. Heating Sapphires is a permanent enhancement, as lasting as the gems themselves.
  • Aquamarine :
  • The very name, Aquamarine, brings to mind the limpid, clear blue tint of the sea. Many Aquamarines are greenish when mined and cut. For those who prefer the purer blue, these stones are heated to enhance their blue color permanently. Yet many Aquamarine fanciers prefer the greenish hues, saying the greener tones remind them more of the sea. the color tones of Aquamarine are subtle and varied. Their soft luster is a wonderful addition to any natural colored gemstones Jewellery collection.
  • Tanzanite:
  • Tanzanite is renowned for the exquisite combination of purple and blue hues of this loveliest of gems discovered in modern times. Mined in Tanzania, at the feet of the majestic Mount Kiliminjaro, virtually every Tanzanite is heated to permanently change its color from orange - brown to spectacular violet-blue color for which this coveted gemstone variety is known.
  • Blue Topaz:
  • Nature rarely produces Topaz in the blue variety, although some examples have been found. Challenged by this rare occurrence of nature, man has discovered an enhancement method to "excite" blue color from a clear to brownish Topaz variety. After the raw Topaz is mined, it is irradiated to brown and then heated to a rich sky blue. This enhancement process is permanent.
  • Amethyst/Citrine:
  • Amethyst and Citrine are gemstones varieties of quartz. Artifacts from ancient cultures the world over attest to Amethyst's and Citrine's place in our collective cultural heritage. The royal purples of Amethyst and the occasional bright, golden hues of Citrine were treasured possessions of emperors, kings and queens throughout recorded history. No jewelery, collection will be complete without these fine treasures of nature. Darker hues of Amethyst are rarely enhanced to perfect their color, although some varieties do respond well to heat enhancement. Brownish varieties, when heated, magically turn into the bright yellow or orange colors known as Citrine. This enhancement method is permanent and will last for the life of the gemstones.
  • Tourmaline:
  • Tourmalines are found in an abundant array of colors. They offer a wide variety of choice for the discerning gemstones Jewellery enthusiast. A complete collection of all the colors represents a fascinating quest for the knowledgeable seeker of nature's bounty. Dark blue, blue-green and green Tourmalines are often heated to lighten their colors. Red Tourmalines (also known as Rubelite) and pink varieties are often heated to lighten their colors. Red tourmalines (also known as Rubelite) and pink varieties are often heated and/or irradiated to improve their colors. Heat and irradiation color enhancement of Tourmalines are permanent.
  • Occasionally, some Tourmalines may have surface breaking fissures that the filled with resins and/or hardeners. Care must be observed with these gems. Avoid exposing them to harsh abrasives and strong chemical solvents.
  • Cultured Pearls:
  • Pearls have been treasured for their lustrous, creamy textures and their subtle iridescent reflections since the dawn of mankind. Because they are so very rare and so very difficult to recover from the ocean's depths, man invented the technique of "culturing" salt and fresh-water Pearls from oysters carefully seeded with irritants similar to those produced by nature. This painstaking effort of "culturing" is one of the most dramatic examples of man's quest to coax beauty from nature. One of the earliest known methods to enhance a pearl's color and luster required that a chicken swallow the Pearl. The belief at that time (400 AD) was that the chicken's digestive system would soften the Pearl's blemishes and even the color. Today's cultured, fresh and saltwater Pearls are often bleached to achieve a uniform color. They may also be polished in tumblers to make them round and lustrous. Naturally colored pearls are in short supply. Some pearls are dyed and/or irradiated to achieve the rich blacks, grayish blues, pinks and golden hues that are now so much in demand. To care for your cultured Pearls, avoid using nail polish, abrasives, solvents and polish removers while wearing them. Ask your jeweler for further instructions regarding their care.
  • Diamond:
  • Unique in the world of gemstones, Diamond is the hardest of all materials and black diamond beads are very popular with bead shops and jewelry designers. Perhaps it is because of this durability that diamonds are treasured as symbols of devotion and purity. And yet within the structure of Diamonds we often find impurities, or "inclusions," that trap light, distracting our eye from the radiance we so value. Sometimes these tiny imperfections are removed by cutting them away. Often we employ methods that do not sacrifice precious Diamond in the process. Today we have perfected a fascinating enhancement technique that focuses tiny beams of laser light at imperfections and vaporizes them. The minute passageways created by the laser beam may be filled with clear resins or glass-hard substances, rendering them nearly invisible to the naked eye. Only extreme heat or specifically formulated chemicals remove the filling from the laser passageways. This method is also utilized to fill fissures that reach the stone's surface, thereby rendering them less visible to the naked eye.
  • Diamonds may also be colored in a variety of hues. Extreme heat and/or irradiation permanently enhances certain innate color properties, allowing them to display their hues in more brilliant array. Whether irradiated, lasered or cut from the mot perfect raw material, your jeweler will inform you of the magical journey your Diamond has followed, from deep within earth's mantle to the fine, finished gemstone you have before you.
  • more lapidary articles to follow in June...